Maulana Ubaidullah Sindhi
Born in a Uppal Khatri family of Sialkot on March 10, 1872, he was a political activist of the Indian independence movement and one of its leaders. His father Ram Singh Zargar died four months before Ubaidullah was born. Ubaidullah converted to Islam early in his life after reading books on Islam and later enrolled in the Darul Uloom Deoband, where he was at various times associated with other noted Islamic scholars of the time, including Maulana Rasheed Gangohi and Mahmud al Hasan. Maulana Sindhi returned to the Darul-Uloom Deoband in 1909, and gradually involved himself in the Pan-Islamic movement. During World War I, he was amongst the leaders of the Deoband School, who, led by Maulana Mahmud al Hasan, left India to seek support of the Central Powers for a Pan-Islamic revolution in India in what came to be known as the Silk Letter Movement. A movement organised by the Deobandi leaders between 1913 to 1920, aimed at freeing India from the British rule by allying with Ottoman Turkey, Imperial Germany, and Afghanistan
Maulana Sindhi reached Kabul during the war to rally the Afghan Amir Habibullah Khan, and after brief period, he offered his support to Raja Mahendra Pratap's plans for revolution in India with German support. He joined the Provisional Government of India formed in Kabul in December 1915, and remained in Afghanistan until the end of the war, and left for Russia. He subsequently spent two years in Turkey and, passing through many countries, eventually reached Hijaz (Saudi Arabia) where he spent about 14 years learning and pondering over the philosophy of Islam especially in the light of Shah Waliullah's works. In his early career he was a Pan-Islamic thinker. However, after his studies of Shah Waliullah's works, Ubaidullah Sindhi emerged as non-Pan-Islamic scholar. He was one of the most active and prominent members of the faction of Indian Freedom Movement led by Muslim clergy chiefly from the Deoband.
He was very active in covert anti-British propaganda activities during this time. This led to his alienization by Deoband leaders. In 1912 he moved to Delhi and started another institution by the name of Nazaaratul Ma'aarif. . In 1915 he left for Kabul from where he started the "Silk handkerchief" movement. This was a landmark movement in the process of Indian independence. He travelled to Moscow and later Turkey and eventually came home after living in Mecca for 13 years.
In 1936, the Indian National Congress requested his return to India and the British Raj subsequently gave its permission. He remained at Delhi, where he began a programme teaching Shah Waliullah’s Hujjatullahil Baalighah to Akbarabadi, who would then write an exegesis in his own words. Ubaidullah left for Rahim Yar Khan to visit his daughter in 1944. At Deen Pur (Khanpur), he was taken seriously ill and died on 22 of August 1944 at Deen Pur. (wikipedia.org)