This Allama was one of the main figures of the 1857 revolt against the Britishers
Allama was born in 1797 at Sitapur in Uttar Pradesh. He was a philosopher, an author, a poet, a religious scholar, but is most remembered for issuing a fatwa in favor of Jihad against the Britishers in 1857.
Besides being a scholar of Islamic studies and theology, he was also a literary persona, especially of Urdu, Arabic and Persian literature. He edited the first diwan of Mirza Ghalib on his request.
He had a phenomal memory and memorized the Quran in a little over 4 months. Ha also completed the curriculum in Arabic, Persian and religious studies by the age of thirteen.
Allama had been a chief judge in Lucknow. After the Indian Rebellion of 1857 failed, believing himself covered by an amnesty he surrendered himself to the British authorities on 30 January 1859 at Khairabad. He was tried and found guilty of encouraging murder and taking a leadership role in the rebellion. He had chosen to be his own counsel and defended himself. His arguments and the way he defended his case was so convincing that the presiding magistrate was writing his judgement, exonerating him, when he confessed to giving the fatwa declaring that he could not lie. He was sentenced for life to the prison at Kalapani in Andaman Islands with confiscation of his property. He reached Andaman on 8 October 1859.
On account of his deep knowledge and erudition he was called Allama and later was venerated as a great Sufi. He possessed a great presence of mind and was very witty. There are many stories about his repartee with Mirza Ghalib and other contemporary intellectuals. He established a Madrasa Khairabad in northern India, where many scholars got educated.
He also argued against the idea of Non Finality of Prophethood to defend qadiyanis who claims Mirza ahmed qadiyani as a new prophet. He wrote that, according to the Qur'an and Hadith, the prophet Muhammad is the final prophet, and there can be no other prophet or "messenger" after him. To believe that there can be another Muhammad would necessitate that Allah did something apart from what He has stated in the Qur'an, that is, that Allah has lied. Lying is a flaw and it is impossible for Allah to have a flaw. He died in 1861 while exiled on Andaman Island. Gleaned from wikipedia.org
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